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Lumen technology for CABG and PABG provides local ex vivo delivery of short oligomers of L-arginine that efficiently translocate across the endothelial cell membrane and enter the cytoplasm of the endothelial cells. Short oligomers of L-arginine cross the membrane of the endothelial cells comprising the vessel wall and are cleaved inside the endothelial cells to provide an effective intracellular source of monomeric L-arginine. L-arginine is the "limited" substrate for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in conditions of stress. The delivery of L-arginine results in therapeutically useful nitric oxide release and markedly reduced intimal hyperplasia or vessel stenosis in "injured" vessels.

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